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ASTM D4991-2007(2015) 用真空法进行空瓶罐泄漏试验的标准试验方法(中文翻译)

时间:2024-05-29 10:05 点击次数:
    为便于广大泉科瑞达客户相关品控、质量管理或研发人员更好的了解ASTM D4991-2007(2015) Standard Test Method for Leakage Testing of Empty Rigid Containers by Vacuum Method标准的相关内容,泉科瑞达特别整理了ASTM D4991-2007(2015) 用真空法进行空瓶罐泄漏试验的标准试验方法中文翻译。

一、ASTM D4991-2007(2015)标准大体情况
 
标准号:ASTM D4991-2007(2015)
中文标准名称:用真空法进行空瓶罐泄漏试验的标准试验方法
英文标准名称:Standard Test Method for Leakage Testing of Empty Rigid Containers by Vacuum Method
 
Standard Test Method for Leakage Testing of Empty Rigid Containers by Vacuum Method1
真空法检验空硬容器泄漏的标准试验方法1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D4991: the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperseript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
本标准以ASTM D4991发布;名称后面的编号表示最初通过的年份,或者在修订的情况下,最后一次修订的年份。括号中的数字表示上次重新批准的年份。上标epsilon(e)表示自上次修订或重新批准以来的编辑更改。

二、ASTM D4991-2007(2015)标准内容及翻译

1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the testing of empty containersfor resistance to leakage under differential pressure conditionssuch as those which can occur during air transport. It is suitablefor testing rigid containers intended for the transportation ofsome hazardous liquids in accordance with the United NationsRecommendations On The Transport Of Dangerous Goods(UN TDG) and the International Civil Aviation OrganizationTechnical Instructions For The Safe Transport Of DangerousGoods By Air (CAO TIs).
1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns,ifany,associated with its use.It is theresponsibility ofthe user ofthis standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and deterine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use.

1.范围
1.1本试验方法包括空容器在不同压力条件下的耐泄漏性试验,例如在空运过程中可能发生的情况。它适用于根据联合国关于危险货物运输的建议书(UNTDG)和国际民用航空组织关于危险货物安全航空运输的技术指示(ICAOTI)运输某些危险液体的硬质容器的测试。
1.2本标准无意解决与其使用相关的所有安全问题如果有的话)。本标准的使用者有责任在使用前建立适当的安全和健康实践,并确定法规限制的适用性。
 
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standands:
D996 Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environ-ments
D3078 Test Method for Determination of Leaks in FlexiblePackaging by Bubble Emission
2.2 United Nations Document:
ST/SG/AC.10/1 Recommendations On The Transport OfDangerous Goods
2.3 International Civil Aviation Organization:DOC 9284-AN/905 Technical Instructions For The SafeTransport Of Dangerous Goods By Air

2.参考文件
2.1美国材料学会标准:2
D996包装和分销环境术语
D3078用气泡排放法测定软包装中泄漏的试验方法
2.2联合国文件:ST/SG/AC.10/1关于危险货物运输的建议
2.3国际民用航空组织DOC9284-AN/905危险货物航空安全运输技术规程
 
3. Terminology
3.1 Defnitions: Terms and defnitions used in this testmethod may be found in Terminology D996.
3.2 Defnitions of Terms Specifc to This Standard:3.2.1 rigid container-a container suficiently rigid thatunder a positive pressure of 100-kPa gage the volumetricexpansion does not exceed 0.5 %, such as a glass bottle.

3.术语
3.1定义:本试验方法中使用的术语和定义可在术语D996中找到。
3.2本标准专用术语的定义:3.2.1硬质容器---种足够坚硬的容器,在100kPa表压的正压力下,体积膨胀不超过0.5%,如玻璃瓶.
 
4. Summary of Test Method
4.1 An empty rigid container to be tested is pressurized byimmersion in an ethylene glycol-water solution in a transparenttest chamber and subjected to a gradually increasing partialvacuum.The container is observed for signs of leakage, asevidenced by escaping air bubbles during depressurization orfuid in the container after re-pressurization.
 
4.试验方法总结
4.1将待测试的空刚性容器浸入乙二醇-水溶液中,通过在透明的测试室中对该容器加压,并使其经受逐渐增加的部分真空。观察容器是否有泄漏迹象,如减压过程中逸出气泡或再加压后容器中的液体.
 
5. Significance and Use
5.1 Containers may be pressurized in accordance with thistest method without modification to the closure or to the bodyof the container. This test method may be used for testing rigidcontainers intended for the transportation of some liquids by airin accordance with the ICAO Ts or in accordance with the UNTDG.
5.2 This test method establishes the point at which leakagecommences, with a limit of approximately 95-kPa(13.8-psi)differential. See Test Method D3078 for fexible packages.
5.3 This test method may not be suitable for some packages,such as packages with paper cap seals, where the test fluid mayrapidly deteriorate the packaging.

5.意义和用途
5.1可按照本试验方法对容器加压,而不对封闭件或容器体作任何改动。本试验方法可用于试验按照民航组织技术规程或按照联合国运输危险货物条例空运某些液体的硬质容器。
5.2本试验方法确定泄漏开始的点,其极限值约为95kPa(13.8psi)的压差。见软包装的试验方法D3078。
5.3本试验方法可能不适用于某些包装件,如纸盖密封的包装件,在这些包装件中,试验液可能会使包装件迅速变质。
 
6.Apparatus


6.1 Transparent Vessel,large enough to permit the testspecimen(s)to be immersed in the test fuid with a minimumheadspace of 20 %, capable of withstanding at least 1 ½-atmpressure differential, fitted with a fat vacuum-tight cover isrequired.
6.2 Vacuum Gage, Inlet Tube from a Source ofVacuum, andOutlet Tube to the Atmosphere, shall be sealed into the cover.The inlet and outlet tubes shall be equipped with handoperatedvalves.The vacuum gage shall be laboratory quality with afull-scale range from0to 100 kPa(0 to 14.5 psi)with minimum graduations no greater than 2 kPa (0.3 psi)andaccuracy to within l %. A suitable moisture trap, to preventback-fow of liquid, should be fitted between the vacuum gageand the source of vacuum.
6.3 Solution ofEthylene Glycol in Water; 50 % by Volumefor use as a test fuid, at ambient temperature unless otherwisespecified,is required.Where a test temperature other thanambient is specified, the solution shall be at the specified testtemperature. Other solutions may be required for high and lowtemperatures.
NoTe 1-If ethylene glycol antifreeze solution is used, it should beclarified by filtering through activated charcoal.
6.4 A suitable means to hold the test specimen(s) with theclosure(s)not more than 25 mm (1 in.) under the surface of thetest fuid is required, The method of restraint should not affectthe results of the test.


6.仪器

6.1透明容器,其罐容应足以使试样浸入试验液中,且顶部空间至少为20%,能承受至少1 1/2大气压的压差,并配有真空密封盖。
6.2真空计,来自真空源的进气管,和通向大气的出口管,应密封到盖内。入口管和出口管应配备手动阀门。真空计必须是实验室质量的,全量程范围从0到100kPa(0到14.5 psi),并带有最小刻度(分辩率)不大于2 kPa(0.3 psi)(0.3Psi)和精度到1%以内。应在真空计和真空源之间安装一个合适的水分收集器(油水分离器),以防止液体回流。
6.3除非另有规定,否则要求在环境温度下使用50%体积比的乙二醇水溶液作为试验流体。如果规定了环境温度以外的试验温度,则溶液应处于规定的试验温度高温和低温可能需要其他解决方案。
注1:如果使用乙二醇防冻液,应通过活性炭过滤澄清。
6.4需要有一种适当的方法来保持试验样品,封闭装置在试验流体表面下不超过25毫米(1英寸)。约束的方法不应影响测试的结果。
 
7. Test Specimens
7.1 Test specimens shall consist of containers, includingtheir closures. Test specimens of containers which are inproduction shall be representative samples, taken at random.7.2 Containers shall be empty containers which previouslycontained any substance and were cleaned of the contents priorto testing.New containers and closures,where available.should be used.
7.3 Each container shall be closed for testing in the samemanner as it would be closed for actual shipment. All closuresshall be installed using the techniques or torques specified bythe closure manufacturer, container manufacturer, or shipperClose containers at ambient pressure and temperature.
7.4 Where a test temperature other than ambient is specified,the sample containers shall be conditioned at the test tempera-ture for at least 24 h, and until they reach equilibrium oftemperature with the conditioning atmosphere.7.5 Unless otherwise specifed, test at least three specimens.
 
7.试样
7.1试样必须由容器组成,包括容器的封闭装置。在生产中的容器的试样应是随机抽取的具有代表性的试样。
7.2容器必须是空的容器,先前装有任何物质,并在试验前清除了内装物。新的容器和密封件,如果有的话。应该使用。
7.3每个集装箱封闭测试的方式应与封闭实际装运的方式相同。所有密封件应在环境压力和温度下,采用密封件制造商、容器制造商或运输商密封容器规定的技术或扭矩进行安装。
7.4规定了环境温度以外的试验温度。样品容器应在试验温度下调节至少24小时,直到它们达到与调节气氛的温度平衡。
7.5除非另有规定,至少测试三个试件。
 
8.Preparation of Apparatus
8.仪器的准备
 
8.1 Assemble the apparatus in accordance with Fig1.
8.1按照图1装配设备。
图1真空法容器泄漏试验的典型试验装置
 
 
8.2 Prior to testing,draw a vacuum to at least 95-kPa(13.8-psi)differential and maintain this vacuum for 10 min inorder to remove air dissolved in the test fluid.
8.2在测试之前,将真空度抽至至少95-kPa(13.8-psi)的压差,并保持该真空度10分钟,以去除溶解在测试流体中的空气。.
 
9.Procedure
9.1 Immerse the test specimens in the ethylene glycol-watersolution inside the transparent test chamber. Remove as manybubbles as possible from the outer surface of the test specimensby agitation or other means.
9.1.1 More than one specimen can be tested at one timeprovided that there is suffcient space in the test chamber toallow clear observation of each specimen. If this is done, afxthe test specimens so closures are suffciently separated topermit individual observation of each, to detect leakage.
9.2 Seal the lid, open the hand valve on the inlet tube, andclose the hand valve on the outlet tube to the atmosphere. Turnon the vacuum so that the gage rises slowly(from 30 s to 1min)to a p截(Alt + Afferential of 95 kPa (13.8 psi), or otherspecifed pressure differential. The vacuum can be controlledby cracking open the hand valve on the outlet tube. During therise in vacuum, observe the test specimen(s)for leakage asevidenced by a continuous stream or recurring succession ofsmall bubbles. Isolated bubbles caused by trapped air are notconsidered evidence of leakage. Maintain the vacuum for aminimum of 10 min.For test specimens which are singlepackagings or combination packagings in whole or part ofplastic material, maintain the vacuum for 30 min. Then turn thevacuum off and release it slowly by opening the hand valve onthe outlet tube. Keep the test specimen(s) immersed for at least30s at ambient pressure. Remove the test specimen(s)andexamine the inside for fuid.
9.3 Leakage is indicated by a continuous stream or recurringsuccession of bubbles. Fluid within the test specimen is alsoevidence of leakage.
 
9.程序
9.1将试样浸入透明试验箱内的乙二醇水溶液中。通过搅拌或其他方法尽可能多地从试样的外表面去除气泡。
9.1.1如果试验箱中有足够的空间可以清楚地观察每-个试样,则可同时试验一个以上的试样。如果这样做了,贴上测试样品,使密封件充分分开,允许每个密封件单独观察,以检测泄漏。
9.2盖上盖子,打开进气管手阀,关闭出气管手阀。打开真空,使压力计缓慢上升(从30秒到1分钟)到95千帕(13.8PSI),或其他规定的压差。可以通过打开出口管上的手动阀来控制真空。在真空上升过程中,观察试样是否有泄漏,如连续流动或反复出现的连续小气泡。被困空气引起的少量气泡不被认为是泄漏的证据。保持真空至少10分钟。对于全部或部分塑料制成的单容器或组合容器试样,保持真空30分钟。然后关闭真空并通过打开出口管上的手动阀缓慢释放真空。将试样在环境压力下浸泡至少30秒。取出试样,检查内部是否有液体。
9.3泄漏是指连续流或连续不断的气泡。试样中的液体也是渗漏的证据。
 
10.Report
10.1 Report the following information:10.1.1 Identifcation of the containers and closures, usingmanufacturer's part numbers and deseriptions or using ex-ploded view drawings or cross-sectional drawings, including
detailed data on material construction,10.1.2 Total number of specimens tested,10.1.3 Number of specimens tested at one time,10.1.4 Test pressure requirement, where applicable.10.1.5 Whether test was performed at ambient temperatureand if not, the test temperature. If a test solution other than50 % ethylene glycol was used, identify the solution,10.1.6 Whether test specimens passed or failed the test,where applicable,
10.1.7 Whether each test specimen leaked and at whatpressure differential.
10.1.8 Whether test fluid was apparent in each test specimenafter testing,
10.1.9 A statement to the effect that all tests were made infull compliance with the requirements of this test method, ornoting any variations and detailing them.
 
10.报告
10.1报告下列信息
10.1.1容器和密封件的标识,使用制造商的零件号和说明,或使用展开图或横截面图,包括材料结构的详细数据。
10.1.2试验的试件总数
10.1.3一次试验的试件数量,
10.1.4试验压力要求,如适用
10.1.5试验是否在环境温度下进行,如果不是,试验温度。如果使用的是50%乙二醇以外的供试溶液,请鉴定该溶液。
10.1.6试件是否通过或未通过试验,如适用,
10.1.7各试件是否泄漏,在什么压差下,
10.1.8试验后,每个试件中的试验液是否明显。
10.1.9说明所有试验均完全符合本试验方法要求的声明,或指出任何变化并详细说明。

    以上ASTM D4991-2007(2015) 用真空法进行空瓶罐泄漏试验的标准试验方法(中文翻译),由山东泉科瑞达仪器整理,我司拥有多款软包装密封性能测试仪,其原理涉及气泡法、真空法等多种原理,可分别用于软袋、塑料瓶、玻璃瓶类包装的密封与泄漏性能试验,如欲获取更多请与我司市场或销售部门联络。
注:标准专业性很高,可能存在翻译所用术语不够专业的问题,欢迎相关专家给予指导与斧正。




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